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K.Q0$y$$Ts$ : Chapter #10 Motion and Momentum
Section 1: What is Motion? (Page 282287)
All matter is in constant motion.
Motion  change in position
Point of reference  the place from which the motion is observed
Distance  length
Displacement  distance between the starting and ending points and the direction in which you travel
Speed  distance traveled divided by the time it takes to travel that distance
Speed (in meters/ second) = Distance (in meters)
Time (in seconds)
S = D
T
Example: If a sprinter ran the 100m dash in 10s, she had a speed of 10 m/s.
Average speed = total distance divided by total time
Instantaneous Speed  the speed of an object at one instant of time
Example: Average if it takes you 0.5 hrs to walk 2 km to the library, average speed is 4km/hr; however, at times speed may have been 0 or 7 or 4.
Constant Speed  speed that does not change
Graphing Motion
Distancetime graph  time on the horizontal, distance is plotted on the vertical
page 286, Student A traveled faster
Velocity
Velocity  speed of the object and the direction of its motion
map and compass
Section 2Acceleration (p.288292)
Acceleration  the change in velocity divided by the time it takes for the change to occur
Negative acceleration deceleration
Acceleration (in m/s2) = final speed (in m/s) initial speed (in m/s)
Time (in seconds)
A = (sfsi)
T
Page 290 problems
Positive acceleration speeding up
Ride bicycle and increase from 4m/s to 6m/s in 5 seconds
Negative acceleration slowing down
Ride bicycle and decrease from 4 m/s to 2 m/s in 5 seconds
Graphing acceleration
Speed on vertical and time on the horizontal axis (explain graph on page 292)
Section 3Collisions (page 293298)
Mass  amount of matter in the object, kilograms
Inertia  tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion More mass= more inertia
Momentum (p)  a measure of how hard it is to stop an object and depends on the objects mass and velocity
Momentum (in kgm/s) = mass (in kg) x velocity (in m/s)
p = mv
Conservation of Momentum the total momentum of objects that collide is the same before and after the collision (billiard balls, cars, football players)
catching a backpack while on roller skates (page 296)
 Bumper cars
Zero Momentum  two objects move in opposite directions with the same speed after the collision
You should be able to:
 Define Distance, Speed, and Velocity
 Graph Motion
 Define Acceleration
 Predict What Effect Acceleration Will Have On Motion
 Explain the Relationship Between Mass and Inertia
 Define Momentum
 Predict Motion Using the Law of Conservation of Momentum
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